John Rawls : Les bases philosophiques du libéralisme politique (French Edition)


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New York : Oxford University Press. Paris : Fayard. Paris : Seuil. Paris : Aubier- Flammarion. Bruxelles : De Boeck, p. Pour une psychologie historique. Oxford : Blackwell. Beau- villard. D'Auzac de Lamartine et P. In Rationalism in Politics and Other Essays.

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Chantal Mouffe : « S’il y a du politique, c’est qu’il y a du conflit »

Londres : Methuen, p. Civic Republicanism and the Modern World. New York : Routledge. PAUL E.

Guide John Rawls : Les bases philosophiques du libéralisme politique (French Edition)

Jr eds. Londres : Routledge and Kegan Paul, p. Londres: Allen and Unwin. Examining the Need for Civic Education. Cambridge Mass. Paris: Seuil, [texte or. Tchoudnowsky et C. Points-Seuil, , p. RAZ J. Dissent, hiver, p. Paris : Hachette. Pans: PUF, , p. Rorty, J. Put another way, "the violation of the liberty of a few might not be put right by the greater good shared by many 18 ". Thus, by pretending to perform axiologically neutral works, neoclassical economists use this well known strategy - used from Marxism to socio-biology - of trying to pass off metaphysical, if not basically political, beliefs as scientific.


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Therefore, by using often obstruse formalisms, and by looking at everything from a purely quantitative angle, and refusing to consider issues about quality and meaning as also being rational, economic liberal philosophers have contributed to the crisis in sciences identified by Edmund Husserl as early as the s. The father of phenomenology accused positivism of having "dropped" metaphysical questions. He emphasised that "examined closely, these and all the excluded questions, have their inseparable unity in the fact that they contain, whether expressly or as implied in their meaning, the problems of reason - reason in all its particular forms.

Reason is the explicit theme in the disciplines concerning knowledge ie.

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Nevertheless, neither the history of economic thinking nor the false positivity of the liberal doctrine provides definitive proof of an undeniable link between economics and ethics. It is necessary to consider the issue logically. Logic can be found, with David Hume, for example, who established the need for rules on fairness because of the simultaneous scarcity of natural resources and altruism, or put another way, the combined greed seen in nature and humans.

In his third volume of his Treatise of human nature dedicated to morality published in , he wrote that "'tis only from the selfishness and confin'd generosity of man, along with the scanty provision nature has made for his wants, that justice derives its origin". Therefore, according to Hume, the limited amount of available resources is one of the phenomena which impose the need for wide-ranging rules of fairness, via rules for distribution.

If the resources which the famous philosopher refers to are natural ones he wrote before the industrial revolution , the logic he uses can be applied to manufactured goods. Despite technological advances and increased output experienced in many industries, the volume produced remains finite. Further, even if nowadays manufactured goods and services provided in ever greater quantities reduce some scarcity, the likelihood of scarcity increasing in other areas remains just as great, and in some cases creates it. I am not referring to the thesis which holds that an increase in what is offered, thus creating needs, does not diminish scarcity but redirects it 22 , as it merits specific analysis.

Rather, I am referring to the changes that are caused by the economy to natural reserves. As is clearly evident, every single day the environment is being damaged by economic activity which greedily consume space, energy, living natural resources and the list goes on. The ensemble of environments, soil, water and air, are affected and all activities, manufacturing and consumption, contribute to the destruction of the earth.

We must fully recognise now, the finite nature of the earth's assets and the need not to endanger the great cycles that ensure their continuation. Further, as David Hume underlined, lack of resources is compounded by a lack of altruism. Even though the "moral dimension" of human beings is an incontestable reality, for example in Nazi concentration camps where there was an absolute lack of resources, humans behaved altruistically. Max Weber, referring to Fichte, warned of this when he said that politicians do "not even have the right to presuppose their goodness and perfection".

Looking at the world as it is now, we are no where near that situation. The reality is that a lack of resources combined with a lack of altruism makes it necessary to establish rules for justice specifically designed to set principles for the distribution of available goods. Closer to our time, John Rawls highlighted the need for social justice based on the very definition of society. According to the author of Theory of Justice , a society is defined as "a more or less self-sufficient association of persons who in their relations to one another must recognise certain rules of conduct as binding and who for the most part act in accordance with them 24 ".

It goes without saying that these rules are set for the general good of the society in question.

John Rawls : Les bases philosophiques du libéralisme politique (French Edition) John Rawls : Les bases philosophiques du libéralisme politique (French Edition)
John Rawls : Les bases philosophiques du libéralisme politique (French Edition) John Rawls : Les bases philosophiques du libéralisme politique (French Edition)
John Rawls : Les bases philosophiques du libéralisme politique (French Edition) John Rawls : Les bases philosophiques du libéralisme politique (French Edition)
John Rawls : Les bases philosophiques du libéralisme politique (French Edition) John Rawls : Les bases philosophiques du libéralisme politique (French Edition)
John Rawls : Les bases philosophiques du libéralisme politique (French Edition) John Rawls : Les bases philosophiques du libéralisme politique (French Edition)
John Rawls : Les bases philosophiques du libéralisme politique (French Edition) John Rawls : Les bases philosophiques du libéralisme politique (French Edition)
John Rawls : Les bases philosophiques du libéralisme politique (French Edition) John Rawls : Les bases philosophiques du libéralisme politique (French Edition)

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