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In the first chapter of the first book Buxtorf states:. Grammar is the art of speaking well, for the Hebrews Hebrew. Its parts are two: etymology and syntax. Buxtorf pays more attention to the pronunciation of Hebrew than his Jewish colleagues. From his transliterations of Hebrew can be concluded that he learned his Hebrew from Ashkenazic Jews Klijnsmit Sometimes he criticizes Jewish pronunciation as appears from his remark about the cayin:.
Atqui diversae literarum figurae diversae potestatis indices sunt. Hos tamen praestat imitari quam per Gn cum quibusdam efferre Buxtorf 5. Present-day Jews pronounce it as an 'alef and so they mix up the two spiritus. However, different shapes of the letters are indicators of different pronunciations.
It is yet better to imitate them than to pronounce it as Gn as some do '. As his Jewish predecessors Buxtorf distinguishes five classes of consonants: gutturals, palatals, linguals, dentals and labials. In his treatment of the vowels B uxtorf states that qibbus is pronounced as the "y psilon of the Greeks" Buxtorf 8.
This pronunciation [u] instead of [u] is a bit strange and I do not know where he has it from. The qames is described as "a mixture of A and O" Buxtorf 8 , which might be an indication that Ashkenazic pronunciation is described by Buxtorf. Unlike the Jewish grammarians Buxtorf gives ample space to the treatment of the accents. For Buxtorf also the Hebrew noun has the same cases as Latin nouns do:. Case is the different ending of the noun: it is sixfold in both numbers , nominative, genitive, dative, accusative and ablative.
Buthere [i. Buxtorf's grammar is very systematic: first he gives definitions, then he gives grammatical rules and finally he treats anomalies. The treatment of the verb covers many pages. Paradigm of the verb is. A verb is an inflectional word with tense and person. It is very likely that Buxtorf is influenced by Ramus in the field of grammar which might be concluded from his endless dichotomies of which I would like to give an example:.
Words might be joined together either by agreement or by government.
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Agreement of a noun with a noun is either of a substantive with a substantive or of a substantive with an adjective. Although Buxtorf's syntax, from which the example above is taken, covers nearly three hundred pages it does not give much more than a description of phrases as is common in seventeenth-century grammars. The Thesaurus is concluded by a treatise on Hebrew poetics, some specimina of Judaeo-German, an index of irregular words and a table of contents. Thomas Erpenius, Hebraist and Arabist at Leiden university.
Thomas Erpenius was born in in Gorkum. He studied from to. During his stay in England in he became interested in Arabic language and literature. He also visited Geneva, Venice, Basle and Heidelberg. Shortly after his arrival in Holland he was appointed professor of oriental languages but not of Hebrew. In he became professor of Hebrew also.
He wrote grammars of Hebrew and Arabic, which he printed himself. Erpenius died in His collection of manuscripts has been purchased in by the Duke of Buckingham and was later given to Cambridge university. His grammar of Arabic must have been popular for quite a long time: it had been reprinted in Rome as late as and it appeared in a French translation in Juynboll Thomas Erpenius published his GrammaticaEbrea Generalis in As appears from the Dedicatio of his grammar it is written as an introduction to the more complicated Hebrew grammars of Buxtorf and Pagninus.
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The grammar contains five "books". In the first book "De dementis linguae ebraeae" the consonants and the vowels are treated. Erpenius adopts the articulatory phonetic classification of the consonants which is common in Judaeo- Arabic grammar. He also divides the consonants into radical and servile letters but he does not treat the servile letters as systematically as Jewish grammarians did. In the first chapter of the second book, "On the verb", Erpenius states that the Hebrew language has three parts of speech: verb, noun and particle Erpenius : Erpenius takes the verb.
Participium Paul, 4. Imperativus, 6. Futurum Erpenius : In the conjugation there are six parts, which are commonly called tenses and moods, and which are put in this order: 1.
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From his book on the noun appears that also Erpenius can be considered as a Ramist grammarian:. Forma No men aliud purum est, aliud Heemanticum. Purum est in quo nullae sunt literae praeter radicales, ut. Heemanticum est in quo ad radicales una vel plures ex servilibus comprehensis voce. In form the noun is either pure, or "heemantic". A pure one is in which there are no letters except the radicals like. A "heemantic" one is a word in which one or more from the servile letters, comprehended in the word.
The fact that he only recognizes two genders in the Hebrew noun might be a result of his Ramist attitude Erpenius Book 4, "On the particles", is followed by a book on syntax in which only the construction of phrases is treated. Sixtinus Amama, professor in Franeker. Sixtinus Amama was born in in Franeker Friesland. In he began his study in oriental languages at the university of his place of birth.
Before he had finished the first year of his studies Drusius decided to train him as his successor. He went to Leiden in to attend the lectures of Thomas Erpenius and in he studied in Oxford. In he succeeded Drusius as professor at Franeker university.
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Amama considered knowledge of Hebrew to be useful not only for theologians but also for laymen, as appears from the fact that he published a grammar of Hebrew in Dutch. He also pleaded for tuition of Hebrew in Latin schools. Amama died suddenly in in Franeker Fuks ; Van Rooden Amama's grammar is not very different from those of Buxtorf and Erpenius. His preface is interesting for us because there he expresses his opinion of Hebrew and of the necessity of the study of Hebrew.
He states in the preface of his Hebreusche Grammatica ofte Taal-konst , which followed his Grammatica EbreaMartinio-Buxtorfiana l , that the Greek language is the vein from which all worldly knowledge springs, but that Hebrew is more important because it was created by God. And because Hebrew is the mother of all other languages it is also the mother of all commendable learning, for knowledge of names is the entrance to the knowledge of things. Therefore it is necessary to study the language which was not affected by the confusion of tongues, i.
Cadmus, whose name is Hebrew, brought the letters from Phoenicia to Thebes, which is also Hebrew and which means "ship", from this it becomes clear that Hebrew is the mother of the Greek language.
An unknown grammar by a well known man. Baruch Bento, Benedictus de Spinoza was born in in Amsterdam. He was from Portuguese Jewish descent. From his fifth to his fifteenth year he got his education in the school of the Portuguese Jewish community. In the years that followed he learned Latin and became interested in Cartesian philosophy. EisRenatiDes Cartes principia philosophiae is still considered to be one of the best introductions to Descartes' philosophy.
In he was expelled from the Jewish community. He earned his living by grinding lenses. In he published his Tractatus Theologico-Politicus which was banned in by the States of Utrecht and in by the States of Holland.
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His other works, as the Ethica, Ordine geo- metrico demonstrata and his Compendium Grammatices Linguae Hebraeae, appeared a few weeks after his death. This concise. Hebrew grammar "remained unfinished because of the untimely death of the author", as we read in the "Admonition to the reader".
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