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Publisher: Routledge , This specific ISBN edition is currently not available. View all copies of this ISBN edition:. Synopsis About this title In the decades following the introduction of Communist Party rule in Shanghai in , the city's economy, infrastructure and links with the world all atrophied. Review : 'The best English language work to date on Shanghai in the post era The book introduces the changing senses of what it means to be Shanghainese, and the ways in which consumption is producing facilitating and marking out new divisions within society.
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Stock Image. Published by Routledge A city wall, three and three quarter miles long and 18— 20 feet high, was built in as protection against Japanese pirates. The transfer of the Ming capital from Nanjing to Beijing in and imperial prohibitions on sea trade brought some three centuries of decline for Shanghai. In the early s foreign visitors described Shanghai as a prosperous trading city with its port handling a volume of shipping equal to or exceeding that of London.
Substantial British trade with China began in the early eighteenth century. For over 80 years, from , European residence was restricted to a acre site in Canton with trade conducted under stringent regulations applied by the Chinese authorities. In , Mr Lindsay was sent from Canton to Shanghai to request that the city be opened up to foreign trade. Estimates put the population in at between , Fortune Vol. I, 91 and , CR 9 , Under the Treaty of Nanking, signed on 29 August , the city was one of five treaty ports opened to British residence and trade the other four were Canton, Xiamen, Fuzhou, and Ningbo, with HongKong being ceded to Britain.
The treaty gave British citizens rights of extraterritoriality, a privilege ultimately granted to the citizens of some 17 countries. Map 2 The main treaty ports of China. Source: E. Source: Charles J. Map 3 Late nineteenth-century sketch map of Shanghai. Source: F. Jones Shanghai and Tientsin. Oxford: Oxford University Press — Map 4 Plan showing development of Shanghai by Semi-colonial Shanghai In the West it often seems that the abiding resonances of pre Shanghai are of sing-song houses, gambling, prostitution, opium Dens, and kidnapping. Such images persist in post studies.
These depictions, however, tell only a very partial story of this East Asian metropolis. In the French and in the Americans were granted land. The British and American zones amalgamated in to form the International Settlement. Shanghai rapidly grew from a prosperous domestic port into one of the truly great cities of the world.
By the mids, Shanghai had become the major industrial, commercial, and financial centre of China and was the seventh largest city in the world. China was portrayed as a country frozen in time, isolated from the beneficent influences of the West, its population in a somnambulant torpor. Once Shanghai came under the aegis of British domination it was readily absorbed into this Orientalist discourse. In marked contrast to earlier descriptions of Shanghai as a flourishing commercial emporium writers such as Archdeacon A.
Similarly, O. Dyce These included an extensive range of both Chinese and foreign corporate groups, voluntary associations, newspapers, and publishing houses. Shanghai was the leading cultural centre in China. Writers such as Xu Zhimo, Mao Dun, and Lu Xun all gravitated to Shanghai and during the s there was a flourishing school of literature in Shanghai.
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Shanghai was also an important point of cultural contact. Hughes —74; Lang , 99, Alongside commerce and industry, diverse underworld activities flourished in the city. With a predominantly migrant population and three separate policing authorities Shanghai became the centre of organised crime in China see Martin The city was also the site of many demonstrations against colonial rule see Wasserstrom On 12 April, Chiang launched an attack on Communist Party members and supporters with the intention of eradicating Communist influence in the city.
This aim was largely achieved and the Communist Party was forced to seek a rural power base. However, civil war and war against the Japanese meant that such plans made little progress and were, effectively, shelved until resuscitated in the s. In , there was Sino-Japanese conflict in and around Shanghai. The International Settlement was overwhelmed by Japanese forces following the attack on Pearl Harbour in December In , the Nationalist government regained control of Shanghai.
The period from —9 has gone down in Shanghai history as marked by inflation, official corruption, and civil strife. On 25 May, with scarcely a shot fired, Shanghai fell to a largely peasant army. Shanghai under Mao Shanghai presented the victorious Communist Party with some extremely difficult problems.
After the purge of , the Communist Party even lacked effective propagandists who spoke the dialect to help consolidate its power in the city Gaulton The new authorities established or revived highly effective means of organisational control and surveillance. A penetrating residential work unit organisational system. A highly developed bureaucratic allocation system. An emphasis on production rather than consumption. A relatively egalitarian distribution system. A rejection of schools as a basic mechanism for sorting talent. These structural features had distinctive social consequences, most notably a high level of stability in jobs and residence, minimal differentiation of consumption patterns and life-styles, extreme bureaucratisation, and the creation of a sharp urban-rural divide.
This pattern made the cities of that period —78 distinct from the past in China and from urban areas elsewhere. The Party adopted a strict Marxist-Leninist approach which engaged with strands of Chinese traditional morality suspicious of the market. In , the tertiary sector accounted for By almost all foreigners had left and foreign and Chinese capitalist enterprises were gradually taken over, a process completed by nationalisations in Workers were employed in state or collective work units called danwei.
These labels effectively defined and limited the opportunities available to people. Expressions of allegiance to and compliance with the prevailing ideology were frequently demanded of citizens. In , Shanghai suffered a loss of capital and expertise to Hong Kong. Between —83, Shanghai gave Initially, most reforms were instituted in the countryside. Between the late s and the early s, there was a rapid decollectivisation of agriculture and the introduction of the household responsibility system.
At this time there were only relatively modest changes in urban China, such as the relegalisation of small-scale private enterprises. Central state control over the economy such as price controls and the allocation of labour diminished.
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Significant powers to make economic decisions were delegated to regional authorities and enterprise managers. There was no fundamental economic restructuring but, rather, new forms and types of employment were grafted onto the existing system. This situation accorded with the prescripts of Chen Yun, a long-standing member of the Politburo and a VicePremier of the State Council. The plan was the cage and the bird the market. If the cage was too small, the bird would suffocate.
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During the years —90, economic growth in Shanghai averaged 7. By , these proportions had fallen to 5. In , Shanghai was the biggest contributor to national income, contributing 8 per cent of total revenues, by it was ranked tenth, providing only 4 per cent ibid. A World Bank report estimated average per capita incomes for different provinces in Shanghai was highest of all at 3, yuan, next was Beijing with 2, yuan, the national average was yuan, and Anhui just yuan. In , inflation became a serious problem for the first time since the Communist take-over. This was a prime underlying cause of the demonstrations which erupted across China in Spring In Shanghai, as in most Chinese cities, there were large-scale demonstrations together with overt demands for greater democracy and an end to corruption by officials.
During the period between mid and attempts were made to slacken the pace of economic reform, and this was a period of stagnation in Shanghai. In the year after 4 June , the atmosphere often felt very constricted and depressing. Two years later, when I next returned to Shanghai in September , I expected there to have been little change in this gloomy scenario. It therefore came as a surprise to find a palpably different atmosphere, with a dramatic improvement in the morale of many Shanghainese citizens, and to discover that a main topic of conversation was stocks and shares!
Friends who had previously been in state work units and seemed able to take days off at will now worked for joint ventures with strict working hours, or were undertaking a second or third job and attending evening classes.
Shanghai in Transition: Changing Perspectives and Social Contours of a Chinese Metropolis
From the central government began to promote Shanghai and Pudong. However, changes of a qualitatively different order did not take place in Shanghai until after Chinese New Year in He even indicated his regret that he had not included Shanghai as one of the original Special Economic Zones established in These enigmatic comments provided the crucial impetus to a quantitatively and qualitatively greater scope and pace of reform in Shanghai.
https://cefitimi.ga In measures announced in March , Shanghai Municipality was given more authority to make decisions regarding investment approval. In addition, the central government granted Shanghai permission to issue stocks and shares and to permit trading in Shanghai of stocks issued elsewhere in China. Foreign stores were allowed in Pudong and income taxes on Shanghai enterprises lowered from 55 per cent to 33 per cent Jacobs and Hong Pudong New District has a population of 1.
Much foreign and domestic capital has flowed into Shanghai. Major infrastructure projects completed in the first half of the s included two suspension bridges built to link Pudong with central Shanghai, the first 16kilometre phase of an underground railway—opened in December , and the completion of a kilometre elevated Inner Ring Road.
Since the mids, the pace of construction in Shanghai has been even more frenetic. The first phase construction of Pudong International Airport was completed in late once fully completed in , this airport will have a handling capacity of 80 million passengers per annum, compared to around 15 million at the existing Hongqiao airport. The aim is that by , Shanghai will have eleven metro lines and ten light rail lines. In August , the storey Jin Mao Tower opened in Pudong, at metres it became the tallest building in China and the third tallest in the world.
New sectors are constantly being opened up to foreign capital.
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