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This implies that a snapshot of localized fish resources over a large area can be revealed using the eDNA method combined with a grid survey such as we conducted in the present study. Several studies on stream organisms that conducted surveillance over large areas successfully found rare or threatened species using the eDNA method [ 19 , 21 , 45 , 47 ]. On the other hand, for accurate measurements of biomass based on eDNA concentration, several problems need to be solved; our results suggest that exogenous DNA complicates an association between eDNA and fish biomass.
Inspection for potential exogenous DNA sources is needed prior to field research, and such exogenous DNA sources should be considered in sampling design and statistical analysis. In addition, a direct relationship between eDNA concentration and the biomass of the target species is also needed for accurate measurements of biomass [ 23 , 24 , 35 ].
A difference in eDNA release rates between developmental stages or body sizes [ 40 ] would have to be considered. Such basic knowledge about release, degradation and diffusion of eDNA under field conditions is required. If this method provides more accurate estimations of biomass, it will be useful for various issues in marine fish resources, for example, finding localized fish resources e. Local echo intensity was determined as the mean of s v values gray points within a water column multiplied by water area.
Buffer area is usually identical with water area of a column although when there were land areas within the buffer area, actual water area green is a circle area without the overlapping land area dark gray. We obtained s v values that reflect fish biomass in a cube 1 m on a side using quantitative echo sounder. The integrated s v is the sum of s v values beneath each data point in assigned vertical range. Coefficient of linear regression models a and Tobit regression models b that are selected by AIC. We thank Y.
Ogura for navigating the research vessel, A. Tanimoto for the preparation of research cruise and T. Squires for comments on the manuscript and English check. We also thank Dr. Leese, Dr. Kelly and two anonymous reviewers. Their productive comments considerably improved our manuscript. Conceived and designed the experiments: SY K. Performed the experiments: SY K. Analyzed the data: SY K. Minami KF. Wrote the paper: SY K.
Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract Recent studies in streams and ponds have demonstrated that the distribution and biomass of aquatic organisms can be estimated by detection and quantification of environmental DNA eDNA. Introduction Surveillance of fish species composition and biomass provides useful information for management and conservation of marine and freshwater ecosystems. Download: PPT.
Materials and Methods Ethics statement Field research in the present study was approved by the harbormaster of Maizuru Bay Permission Number issued at 9 June Research site and field survey To examine the association between the estimated concentration of jack mackerel eDNA and the biomass estimation using echo sounder, water sampling and an acoustic survey were conducted on 18 June in west Maizuru Bay, which has a surface area of ca. Acoustic survey of fish biomass using echo sounder Jack mackerel biomass was estimated using a calibrated quantitative echo sounder following a standard acoustic survey method e.
Data analysis Because we did not have any a priori knowledge of the relevant spatial scale of fish biomass reflecting the spatial pattern of eDNA concentration inside the bay, we obtained 20 datasets of local echo intensity, which was determined as the cumulative echo signals within a defined volume of the water column, from the original echo intensity data S1 Fig.
Results Spatial variation in jack mackerel eDNA and echo intensity The three filter replicates from each sampling event resulted in different eDNA concentrations; filter series 1 generally had higher concentrations than those from the other two S1 Table. Fig 2. Spatial approximation of jack mackerel eDNA concentration. Fig 4.
Vertical distributions of echo intensity and the sea bottom. Association between eDNA concentration and fish biomass The water column fraction that best explained the obtained eDNA concentration differed when analyzing all data compared to the analyses of data excluding outliers; for the former, water columns of 10 m in radius horizontally and the entire water column vertically i. Table 1. Discussion Association between eDNA concentration and fish biomass in west Maizuru Bay We found significant partial associations between spatial variation in estimated eDNA concentration from jack mackerel and echo intensity.
Spatial scale of the association between eDNA and fish biomass The relevant sizes of water columns selected by AIC were relatively small 10— m in radius; S4 Table , although we examined water columns with radii up to m. Fig 6. Correlation coefficient between eDNA concentration in surface and bottom waters. Quick surveillance using the eDNA method and future tasks for accurate estimations of distribution and biomass using eDNA Our findings suggest that the eDNA method will allow for quick surveillance in seas and large lakes.
Supporting Information. S1 Fig. A summary of calculations of local echo intensity. S1 File. Data matrix and R scripts for regression analyses executable in R. S1 Table.
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S2 Table. Variance inflation factor. S3 Table. S4 Table. AIC values of the best ten models. S1 Text. Evaluation of carryover through sampling devices.
Acknowledgments We thank Y. References 1. Bhat A, Magurran AE.
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